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A-Z of reference examples

Books
Take your information from the title page of a book rather than the cover.

  1. Author(s), editor(s) or the organisation who wrote the book (use ‘ed.’ if the book has an editor, or 'eds.' if more than one editor)
  2. Year of publication in (brackets)
  3. Title and subtitle in italics and followed by a full stop.
  4. Edition (if not the first) i.e. 2nd ed.
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Clement, E. and Walsh, A. eds. (2015) Inspiring, innovative and creative library interventions: an i2c2 compendium. Huddersfield: Innovative libraries.

Winterson, J. (2019) Frankisstein: a love story. London: Jonathan Cape.

 

Chapters in edited books
This is only used where each chapter of a book is written by a different author, and pulled together into an edited collection. You need to cite using the author of the chapter and date of publication, but include full details of the book as well as the chapter in the reference list.

  1. Author(s) of the chapter
  2. Year of publication in (brackets)
  3. Title of the chapter or section followed by a full stop.
  4. The word ‘In’ followed by a colon:
  5. The editor(s) of the book (followed by ‘ed.’)
  6. Title and subtitle in italics and followed by a full stop.
  7. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher followed by a comma,
  9. Start and end page numbers of the chapter preceded by ‘pp.’ and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Harvey, D. (1981) The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis. In: Dear, M. and Scott, A. eds. Urbanization and urban planning in capitalist society. London: Methuen, pp. 57-69.

 

E-books
Only use the ebook style if the book does not have a print version.

  1. Author(s) or editor(s) as for a book
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title in italics and subtitle in italics
  4. [Online].
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  7. Available from: <web address>
  8. [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Doctorow, C. (2007) Little brother [Online]. London: Tor Books. Available from: <https://craphound.com/category/littlebrother/> [Accessed 27 June 2019].

 

E-readers
E-readers do not always retain the original page numbers from the book, but they may display location codes or percentage, you can use these when citing in the text instead of the usual page number, e.g. (Smith, 2017, loc 432) or (Smith, 2017, Ch 4, 8%).

Reprinted books
If you are citing a book which has been published before, the full reference should include the reprint details. The in-text citation would include the original publication date (Bronte, 1847):

Bronte, E. (1847) Jane Eyre. Reprint. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2006.

However, if you are citing a facsimile book (where the typesetting and pagination are as the original) include the original publication date in brackets, and then the facsimile publication date at the end after the publisher:

Tolkein, J.R.R. (1951) Lord of the Rings. London: Harper Collins, 2018.

 

Apps
Find the name of the developer if possible – if you cannot find that use the name of the app. If you cannot find the date of the release try looking in the app store.

  1. Developer
  2. Year of release (in brackets)
  3. Title of the app in italics
  4. Edition/version/release number (in brackets)
  5. [Mobile app] followed by a full stop.
  6. [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Terminal Eleven (2019) SkyView (3.6.1) [Mobile app]. [Accessed 17 June 2019].

 

Computer code and software
If you use software or code available on the web give the address as well as the date you used it.

  1. Authors or organisation
  2. Year of release (in brackets)
  3. Title of software code in italics
  4. Version number (if there is one, in brackets)
  5. [Description of the format] followed by a full stop.
  6. Producing organisation (if not already stated as author)
  7. Availability information <web address> [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Microsoft Corporation (2019) Powerpoint for Office 365 (1808) [Software].

GIMP (2019) GIMP (2.10.12) [Software]. Available from: <https://www.gimp.org/downloads/> [Accessed 24 June 2019].

 

Whole proceeding

  1. Authors/editors eds./organiser of the conference
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of conference including date and place conference held and followed by a full stop.
  4. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  5. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  6. Availability information <web address>
  7. [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Marselle, M., Stadler, J., Korn, H., and Bonn, A., eds. (2018) Proceedings of the European conference ‘Biodiversity and health in the face of climate change – challenges, opportunities and evidence gaps’ 27-29 June 2017, Bonn. Bonn: Bundesamt fur Naturschutz. Available from: <https://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/BfN/service/Dokumente/skripten/
Skript509.pdf> [Accessed 23 May 2019].

 

Individual conference paper
These are similar to book chapters in that they are part of a wider publication (the conference proceeding):

  1. Author of paper
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of conference paper followed by a full stop.
  4. In:
  5. Authors/Editors of conference proceedings (eds.)
  6. Title of conference in italics including date and place conference held and followed by a full stop.
  7. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  9. Availability information <web address> and [Accessed dd month year] (if applicable) followed by a full stop.
Example:
Yuan, Z. and Li, G. (2016) Research and implementation of hierarchical control of large scale video conference based conference management system. In: Xie, B. and Xu, X. eds. IEEE 2016 International conference on cyber-enabled distributed computing and knowledge discovery (CyberC) Chengdu, 13-15 October 2016. Los Alamitos: IEEE.

 

Your own research data
Original data generated by you for a dissertation or research project, such as survey results, interviews, or observation notes, is not usually cited and referenced in the same way as information from published sources. This data is only accessible by you, until you put it into your report or dissertation, or publish it in some other way. Include this data in your dissertation as appendices, and refer to it in your text as appropriate. Check any advice and guidelines you are given, or look at examples of previous dissertations, for more information on how to do this.

From a data repository
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) should be included in data citations where available. This ensures that even if the location of the data changes, the DOI will always link to the data used.

Each dataset used must also have a separate citation. You should always include the following components:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of dataset in italics
  4. Edition or version if applicable
  5. [Dataset] followed by a full stop.
  6. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  7. Publisher (usually the repository, unless otherwise stated) followed by a full stop.
  8. Availability information <DOI or web address> and [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Institute for Social and Economic Research (2011) Understanding society: wave 1 2009-2010 [Dataset]. Colchester: UK Data Service. Available from: <http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/doi/?sn=6614#>  [Accessed 29 May 2015].

Statistics from a table
You should provide an in-text citation including the page number from which the information has been taken for any photographs, images, tables, diagrams, graphs, figures or illustrations that you reproduce in your work. The citation would normally be given after the title of the figure, table, diagram, etc.

Example as a label to the diagram:
Figure 1, A Venn Diagram (Fraser, 2018, p. 50).

A reference within the text to a table, graph, diagram, etc. taken from a source should include the author, date and page number in brackets to enable the reader to identify the data.

Example not as a label:
(Fraser, 2018, p. 11).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year and page number needs to be mentioned in brackets.

If the source of the data is not the author’s own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such. See: How to refer to the work of one author cited in that of another, or Secondary Referencing.

 

Dictionary
Dictionaries do not normally have an author, but may have an editor whose name can be used in the citation and reference. If there is no editor, the reference is based on the title of the work.

The citation in the text would be the title and the date, (Oxford English Dictionary, 1989).

  1. Author/editor (if available) or Title in italics (if no author/editor)
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. If there was an editor add the Title of the dictionary in italics
  4. Volume number (if applicable)
  5. Edition number i.e. 2nd ed.
  6. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  7. Publisher followed by a comma,
  8. Page number(s) of definition followed by a full stop.
  9. If the dictionary is online include: Available from: <web address> [Accessed dd month year].
Example:
Oxford English dictionary (1989) vol. 5, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon, p. 67.

Encyclopaedia entry

  1. Author/editor (if available) or Title in italics (if no author/editor)
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of the article in the encyclopaedia
  4. In:
  5. Editors of encyclopaedia (eds.)
  6. Title of the encyclopaedia if not used instead of author
  7. Volume number (if applicable)
  8. Edition number i.e. 2nd ed.
  9. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  10. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  11. Page number(s) of definition followed by a full stop.
  12. If the encyclopaedia is online include: Available from: <web address> [Accessed dd month year].
Example:
Chen, R. and Huang, J. (2012) Credit derivatives. In: Lee, C. and Lee, A. (eds) Encyclopedia of finance. Boston (MA): Springer. pp. 237-242. Available from: <https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-5360-4_6.pdf> [Accessed 23 March 2019].

 

EU Directives, regulations or decisions
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Name of the part of the EU which created the directive, regulation or decision
  2. Date of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title (including reference numbers for directives) in italics followed by a full stop.
  4. Official Journal of the European Union (in italics) followed by a comma,
  5. Volume number, date and page numbers followed by a full stop.
  6. If online include: Available from: <web address> [Accessed dd month year].
Example:
Council of the European Union (2018) Council Directive 2018/822/EU of 25th May 2018 amending Directive 2011/16/EU as regards mandatory automatic exchange of information in the field of taxation in relation to reportable cross-border arrangements. Official Journal of the European Union, L 139, 5 June, pp. 1-13.

EU COM documents
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Name of the European Commission
  2. Date of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title in italics followed by a full stop.
  4. COM document reference number followed by a full stop.
Example:
Commission of the European Communities (2005) Comprehensive monitoring report on the state of preparedness for EU membership of Bulgaria and Romania. COM (2005) 534.

UN treaties
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Title of the treaty in italics
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. [Online] followed by a full stop.
  4. Volume number UNTS followed by a full stop.
  5. Availability information <web address> and [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Convention on the rights of the child (1990) [Online]. 1577 UNTS. Available from: <https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/ Volume%201577/v1577.pdf> [Accessed 31 March 2019].

 

Films broadcast on TV

  1. Film title in italics
  2. Year of production (in brackets)
  3. Person or body responsible for production, i.e. director. (note that the name is written family name last)
  4. Place broadcaster is located followed by a colon:
  5. Broadcaster followed by a full stop.
  6. Date and time of transmission followed by a full stop.
Example:
Stalag 17 (1953) Directed by Billy Wilder. London: Film 4. 16 July 2019, 11:00.

Films on DVD
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Film title in italics
  2. Year of production or distribution (in brackets)
  3. Director (note that the name is written family name last) followed by a full stop.
  4. Place of production followed by a colon:
  5. Producing organisation followed by a full stop.
  6. [Format] followed by a full stop.
Example:
The handmaiden (2017) Directed by Chan-wook Park. Culver City: Sony Pictures. [DVD].

Films viewed via streaming services
In the text: (Title of film, Year of production)

Example in the text:
Oppenheimer represents ... (The act of killing, 2012).

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Film title in italics
  2. Year of production (in brackets)
  3. Person or body responsible for production (note that the name is written family name last) followed by a full stop.
  4. The words ‘Available from’ followed by a colon:
  5. The name of the streaming service
  6. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you viewed the film [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
The act of killing (2012) Directed by Joshua Oppenheimer. Available from: Amazon Prime Video [Accessed 14 February 2019].

Radio programmes
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Title of broadcast in italics
  2. Year of broadcast (in brackets)
  3. Location of broadcaster followed by a colon:
  4. Broadcaster followed by a full stop.
  5. Date and time of broadcast followed by a full stop.
Example:
The Archers (2019) London: BBC Radio 4. 8 July 2019, 19:00.

TV programme
Include details of when the programme was broadcast. Include the following information in this order:

  1. Series title (or programme title if not part of a series)
  2. Series number if appropriate
  3. Year of broadcast (in brackets)
  4. Programme title in italics followed by a full stop.
  5. Location of broadcaster followed by a colon:
  6. Broadcaster followed by a comma,
  7. Date and time of broadcast followed by a full stop.
Example:
Panorama (2019) Britain on the sick. London: BBC1, 19 May 2019, 21:00.

Television programmes viewed via streaming services
In the text: (Title of programme, Year of broadcast)

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Programme title in italics
  2. Year of broadcast (in brackets)
  3. Name of transmitting channel followed by a comma,
  4. The date, month and time of transmission followed by a full stop.
  5. The words ‘Available from’ followed by a colon:
  6. The name of the streaming service
  7. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you viewed the film [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Grayson Perry: divided Britain (2017) Channel 4, 30 May, 21:00. Available from: Box of Broadcasts [Accessed 11 July 2019].

Episode from a television programmes viewed via streaming services
In the text:
(Title of episode, Year of broadcast)

Example in the text:
The monster appears ... (The monster, 2016).

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Episode title
  2. Year of original broadcast/release (in brackets)
  3. Title of series in italics and followed by a comma,
  4. Season and episode number, separated by a comma and followed by a full stop.
  5. The words ‘Available from’ followed by a colon:
  6. The name of the streaming service
  7. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you viewed the film [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
The monster (2016) Stranger things, Season 1, episode 6. Available from: Netflix [Accessed 12 July 2019].

Online video (YouTube, Vimeo etc.)
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Creator’s name (if given) or screen name of contributor who uploaded the video
  2. Year uploaded (in brackets)
  3. Title in italics
  4. [Online video] followed by a comma,
  5. Date of uploading if known followed by a full stop.
  6. Availability information <web address> and [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Maada Bio, J. (2019) A vision for the future of Sierra Leone [Online video], April 2019. Available from: <https://www.ted.com/talks/julius_maada_bio_a_vision_for_the_future_
of_sierra_leone> [Accessed 11 July 2019].

 

If you are referencing a source in a language other than English give the title as it appears on the page, or an English translation with the original language acknowledged. Whichever you choose, be consistent with all foreign language works you use.

If you are using a translation include the translator’s details and the original language it has been translated from.

Include the following information for a book, adapt for other reference types. Key things to include are that it is translated from the xxx by xxxx xxxx.

  1. Authors
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title in italics and followed by a full stop.
  4. Translated from the <language of the original> by <translator’s name>.
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Example:
Canetti, E. (2000) Crowds and power. Translated from the German by C. Stewart. London: Phoenix.

 

If you are using an image from a book use the normal book reference followed by the page number the illustration appears on and either illus. or photograph.

Example:
McCormick, J. (2018) Contemporary Britain. 4th ed. London: Palgrave, p. 197, illus.

Works of art
Include the following:

  1. Artist
  2. Year the work was produced (in brackets)
  3. Title of work in italics
  4. [Material type] followed by a full stop.
  5. 'Held at' name and location of museum or artwork, followed by a full stop.
Example:
Hepworth, B. (1953) Heiroglyph [sculpture]. Held at Leeds City Art Gallery.

Reproduction of an artwork
As well as the original artist, give details of where the reproduction was found. Very like citing something referred to in the work of another author, or secondary referencing.

Example:
Schiele, E. (1915) House on a river [painting]. Reproduced in: Leopold, R. (2011) Egon Schiele: landscapes. London: Prestel, p. 169.

Online images or photographs
Images should always be acknowledged, even if they are on free websites. A general rule is the following information:

  1. Creator of the image (if there is no creator use the title/description)
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of image, or a description in italics
  4. [Online image] or [Online photograph] followed by a full stop.
  5. Availability information <web address> and [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Earth Observatory (2019) Heatwaves scorches Europe [Online image]. Available from: <https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/145249/ heatwave-scorches-europe> [Accessed 27 June 2019].

 

Include the following information in this order. Not all journals have volumes, issues/parts and months/seasons, so only include what you can:

  1. Author(s) of the article
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of the article followed by a full stop.
  4. Title of the journal in italics and followed by a comma,
  5. Volume number
  6. Issue or part number (in brackets) month or season of the year followed by a comma,
  7. Page numbers of article followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Rawson, M. (2002) Learning to learn: more than a skill set. Studies in Higher Education, 25 (2) October, pp. 225-238.

Trew, D. (2015) The Seventies now. Selvedge, (68) November, pp. 64-69.


E-journal articles
Only use this format where a journal is only available as an online version.

  1. Author(s) of the article
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of article followed by a full stop.
  4. Title of journal in italics
  5. The word ‘Online’ [in square brackets] and followed by a comma,
  6. Volume number
  7. Issue or part number (in brackets) month or season of the year followed by a comma,
  8. Page numbers of article or online equivalent followed by a full stop.
  9. The words ‘Available from’ followed by a colon:
  10. The website address or DOI <in angled brackets>
  11. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you viewed the web page [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Zhong, T. and Wang, H. (2019) Motivation profiles for physical activity amongst office workers. Frontiers in Psychology [Online], 12 (3), pp. 23-43. Available from: <doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01577> [Accessed 15 July 2019].

Preprint/in press articles
The principles for e-journal articles also apply for preprints and in press articles. Online preprints are published online before in print and therefore they may not contain the volume/issue/pagination details.

Include all the information as for a journal article but instead of [Online] use [Preprint].

Example:
Conley, M.A. (2019) Asymmetric issue evolution in the American gun rights debate. Social Science Research [Preprint]. Available from: <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X18306094> [Accessed 5 July 2019].

 

UK law reports
Note: Leeds Law School at Leeds Beckett University uses a legal referencing system called ‘OSCOLA’ (Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities). Law students should check current guidance on this elsewhere on our Library pages. Do not mix OSCOLA and Harvard referencing styles.

To cite a specific case and where it was reported include the following information in this order:

  1. Names of the parties (plaintiff and defendant) in italics
  2. Year the case was reported [in square brackets]
  3. Number of the volume in which it was reported
  4. Name of the series of law reports (in abbreviated form)
  5. Page number at which the report starts.
Example:
Douglas v Hello! [2005] EWCA Civ 595, [2006] QB 125.

EU law reports
Citing and referencing EU case law is very similar to UK case law. The most common law report is ‘European Court Reports’ and this is abbreviated to ECR.

 

With university teaching sessions, most lecturers will supply references to information or ideas they have obtained from published sources, which you can then follow up yourself. If your information comes from course hand-outs, or from an e-learning system or virtual learning environment, cite those as your source and include the details in your reference list.

  1. Authors name
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of lecture in italics
  4. [Lecture] in square brackets
  5. Module code and title
  6. Date of lecture
Example:
Smith, J. (2019) Community consultation. [Lecture] ARCS430 Placemaking. Leeds Beckett University. 13 April 2019.

Notes: It is good academic practice to use original sources to inform your work/assignment rather than lecture notes. You should always ask permission before using information obtained via any type of personal interaction.

 

Give the choreographer or playwright instead of the author, followed by the premiere date, but with further details, including when seen. Include the following information in this order:

  1. Choreographer or playwright if known – otherwise put the title or the performers first – followed by a full stop.
  2. Year of first production (premiere) in brackets (or n.d. if not known)
  3. Title of the work or piece in italics followed by a comma,
  4. The performers followed by a full stop.
  5. Date performance viewed and the location details [in square brackets] followed by a full stop.
Example:
Verdi, G. (1871) Aida, Opera North. [Performance viewed 8 May 2019, Leeds Town Hall, Leeds].

 

If you know the originator (cartographer, surveyor, compiler etc.) include the following information in this order:

  1. Originator’s name or corporate author, e.g. Ordnance Survey
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of map in italics and followed by a comma,
  4. Sheet number if given followed by a full stop.
  5. Scale of the map e.g. 1:100000 followed by a full stop.
  6. Series if given (in brackets) and followed by a full stop.
  7. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  8. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Ordnance Survey (1989) Duns, Dunbar and Eyemouth area, sheet 67. 1:50000. (Landranger series). Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Brawn, D.A. (2002) Mallorca north and mountains tour and trail map, 1:40000. Northampton: Discovery Walking Guides.

Waters, C. (2000) Geology of the Bradford district, sheet 69. 1:50000. (England and Wales). Nottingham: British Geological Survey.


If you do not know the originator’s name:

  1. Title of map in italics
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Scale of the map e.g. 1:100000 followed by a full stop.
  4. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  5. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Example:
The European Union: political map, member states, regions and administrative units (1995) 1:4000000. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

 

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Composer
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of work in italics and followed by a full stop.
  4. Editor(s) followed by ed. or any other arrangers, for example ‘Scored by’ or ‘Arranged by’ (note that the name is written surname last) followed by a full stop.
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Beethoven, L. (1813) Symphony no. 7, A major, op. 92. M. Unger ed. London: Eulenburg.

Lennon, J. and McCartney, P. (1965) Yesterday. Arranged by The Beatles. Nashville, USA: Sony/ATV Music.

 

Online newspaper articles
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author(s) or editor of the article where given
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of article followed by a full stop.
  4. Title of newspaper in italics
  5. The word ‘Online’ [in square brackets] and followed by a comma,
  6. Date (no year needed) followed by a comma then page numbers or online equivalent if given – followed by a full stop.
  7. The words ‘Available from’ followed by a colon:
  8. The website address <in angled brackets>
  9. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you viewed the web page [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Dejevsky, M. (2019) Relax everyone, the intergenerational wars are over. Independent [Online], 20 June. Available from: <https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/millennial-gen-z-baby-boomers-ifs-living-standards-a8967606.html> [Accessed 5 July 2019].

Printed newspaper articles

  1. Author(s) of the article where given
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of the article followed by a full stop.
  4. Title of the newspaper in italics and followed by a comma,
  5. Date (no year needed) followed by a comma,
  6. Page number(s) of article followed by a full stop.
Example:
Hawkes, N. (2008) Brittle bone drug can stop disease taking hold. The Times, 11 June, p. 3.

Where there is no author
For sources where the author is not identifiable start your reference with the article title, followed by the date in brackets, but omit the full stop after the title.

Example:
Governments failing to act on climate change (2010) Observer, 17 January, p. 10.

 

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Originator followed by a full stop.
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of patent in italics and followed by a full stop.
  4. Series designation followed by a full stop.
  5. If you found the patent online include ‘Available from: <the web address>’
  6. [Accessed dd month year].
Example:
Chacham, C., Friedman, R. and Amir, U. (1991) Light flasher apparatus. US5252893A. Available from: <https://patents.google.com/patent/US5252893A> [Accessed 9 June 2019].

 

This means information obtained directly from another person. This could include: a discussion on a work placement; a course tutorial; a phone call; an email; a personal message sent via a social networking site. What these examples have in common is that they are not retrievable by another person.

In the text of your assignment: Personal communications can be cited in your text, but you cannot include them in your list of references or bibliography because the information is not retrievable. Give the name and job-title or role of the communicator, and provide some information about the context (personal discussion, email, tutorial etc.) with as exact a date as possible.

Notes: You should always ask permission before using information obtained via any type of personal interaction.

Example in the text:
More and more buildings are now recycling energy according to R. Jann, Building Surveyor, John Moss & Co. (personal discussion on work placement, 22 March 2019).

 

Follow the referencing style for the type of source you have used. These sources could include:

  • An item within an edited collection of poems (cite as a chapter in an edited book)
  • An anthology (book) of work by one poet (cite as a book)
  • A website

If you are citing a long poem, it might have line numbers or parts, use these as given on the source.

Example anthology by one poet:
Larkin, P. (1964) The Whitsun weddings. London: Faber

Example poem on a website:
Larkin, P. (1974) High windows [Online]. Available from: <https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/48417/high-windows> [Accessed 31 July 2018]

 

Reports in online databases
For report type information inside databases, give the website address of the database used, as well as the date you used it.

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of report in italics
  4. [Online] followed by a full stop.
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  7. Availability information <web address> and [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Examples:
Fame (2019) Next PLC: standard report [Online]. Manchester: Bureau van Dijk. Available from: <https://fame.bvdinfo.com> [Accessed 4 April 2019].

Emmanuel, Z. (2019) Mobile Phones - UK - April 2019 [Online]. London: Mintel. Available from: <http://academic.mintel.com> [Accessed 18 June 2019].

Ofsted (2018) Alwoodley Primary School [Online]. Manchester: Ofsted. Available from: <https://reports.ofsted.gov.uk/provider/21/107912> [Accessed 26 November 2018].


Company reports, Financial reports
There are many different types of reports. Ensure you include the subtitle and series information. The correct content and order is the same as for books.

Example:
ASOS (2019) Annual Report 2018 [Online]. London: ASOS plc. Available from: <https://www.asosplc.com/investors/reports-and-presentations/2019> [Accessed 5 July 2019].

 

If quoting from sacred texts such as the Bible, the Koran, the Talmud or the Upanishads, you do not need to give a page number, just the details of the verse or extract. Traditionally a colon is used between chapter and verse.

References to sacred texts are not usually included in your list of references or bibliography but if you do want to include them, cite and reference the edition of the text you have been using, following the rules for a book.

Examples:

Koran 24:35

Luke 4:4

Ruth 3:1-18

 

Sources might be from: Vinyl; CD; DVD; Video; Digital audio file.

For recorded music include the following information in this order:

  1. Composer or songwriter if known – otherwise put the title or the performers first as appropriate
  2. Year of production (in brackets) or (n.d.) if not known
  3. Title of the work or piece in italics followed by a comma,
  4. The performers followed by a full stop.
  5. Publisher or recording company followed by a full stop.
  6. Medium and then format separated by a colon: [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Mozart, W.A. (n.d.) Symphony no. 38 in D major, Vienna Philharmonic. Polydor. [sound recording: CD].

Track on a CD or vinyl album
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Artist
  2. Year of release in brackets or (n.d. if not known)
  3. Title of track followed by a comma,
  4. Title of album in italics followed by a full stop.
  5. Distributor followed by a full stop.
  6. [Medium and format separated by a colon] and followed by a full stop.
Example:
Mitchell, J. (1971) A case of you, Blue. Reprise. [sound recording: CD].

Streaming services
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Composer or songwriter if known otherwise put the title or the performers first as appropriate
  2. Year of release (in brackets)
  3. Title of album in italics followed by a full stop.
  4. The words ‘Available from’ and the name of the streaming service
  5. The word ‘Accessed’ and the date you streamed the album in square brackets and followed by a full stop.
Example:
The Beatles (1967) Sgt. Pepper’s lonely hearts club band. Available from: Deezer [Accessed 15 February 2019].

 

For these, you need to give a source for the information unless the quotation is so well known that it would qualify as ‘common knowledge’. The format for citing and referencing is similar to that used for secondary references.

What to put in your text – your citation
In the text of your essay or assignment, cite both the speaker’s/originator’s name, the context and date of the speech or quotation, if known, and the source which you have used, using the words ‘quoted in’ or ‘reported in’. You should also give the publication date for the source (or the abbreviation ‘n.d.’ if there is no date) and a page number if available.

Example using a spoken quotation in your text:
This respect for acts of self-sacrifice is shown by the endurance in literature and popular culture of heroic ‘last words’. Take the passenger of the Titanic who declared “We’ve dressed up in our best and are prepared to go down like gentlemen” (Benjamin Guggenheim, 14th April 1912, reported in: Encyclopaedia Titanic, n.d).

 

Online standards
Includes: British Standards (BS), European Standards (EN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Standard number followed by the title of the standard in italics and followed by a full stop.
  4. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  5. Publisher followed by a full stop.
Example:
British Standards Institution (2019) BS ISO 13746:2019 Textile floor coverings. Guidelines for installation and use on stairs. London: BSI.

NICE guidance
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title of guideline in italics
  4. [Guideline number NG ***] followed by a full stop.
  5. Available from: <web address in angled brackets>
  6. [Accessed dd month year] followed by a full stop.
Example:
NICE (2019) Crohn’s disease: management [NG129]. Available from: <https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng129> [Accessed 11 July 2019].

 

Include the name of the awarding institution, for example, Leeds Beckett University. You only need to give the place of publication if it is not included in the name of the institution.

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author
  2. Year of publication (in brackets)
  3. Title and subtitle (if any) in italics
  4. Type of thesis [in square brackets] and followed by a full stop.
  5. Place of publication if required followed by a colon:
  6. Awarding institution followed by a full stop.
Example:
Kastel, T. (2017) Live performance and broadcast productions with augmented reality [Ph.D. thesis]. Leeds Beckett University.

 

Acts and statutes

  1. Title of act in italics
  2. Year
  3. c. number (in brackets)
  4. London: HMSO followed by a full stop.
Example:
Education Act 2011 (c.21) London: HMSO.

Use the act title as the citation in the text. If you are referring to a specific section, subsection and paragraph include it as such for example: Education Act 2011 4 (2) (c).

Parliamentary bills
A Bill is a proposal for a new law, or a proposal to change an existing law, presented for debate before Parliament.

Example:
In-text citation: (Agriculture Bill, 2017-19)
Reference list:
Agriculture Bill. [HL] Bill 292, 2017-19 London: TSO. Available from: <https://services.parliament.uk/Bills/2017-19/agriculture.html> [Accessed 5 July 2019].

Online bills
If you used an online version of a Bill, make this clear and give the website address of the database used, as well as the date you used it. (See ‘Acts and Statutes’ above for example):

Example:
Welfare Reform. [Online]. HL Bill (2011-11) 154. Available from: <https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmbills/154/11154.i-v.html> [Accessed 12 July 2019].

Statutory instruments (print or online)
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Title in italics and followed by a full stop.
  2. [Online]. (If using an online version)
  3. Year of publication (in brackets)
  4. The abbreviation ‘SI’ followed by the Statutory Instrument number, followed by a full stop.
  5. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  7. Available from: <web address> (if using an online version)
  8. [Accessed dd month year], followed by a full stop. (if using an online version)
Example:
The Crime and Courts Act 2013 (Commencement No. 18) Order 2018. [Online]. (2018) SI 2018/1423. London: HMSO. Available from: <https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2018/1423/contents/made> [Accessed 12 July 2019].

Official reports of Parliamentary debates (Hansard)
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Abbreviation of the House of Commons/House of Lords ‘HC’ or ‘HL’ followed by ‘Deb’ in italics and followed by a full stop.
  2. Date of Parliamentary session (in brackets)
  3. Volume number followed by a comma,
  4. The abbreviation ‘col.’
  5. Column number followed by a full stop.
  6. Available from: <web address> (if using an online version)
  7. [Accessed dd month year], followed by a full stop. (if using an online version)
Example:
HC Deb. (2019) 663, col. 477.

Official reports of Parliamentary debates in Standing Committees
Include the following information (parts 1-4 are in italics):

Please note: If you used an online version, make this clear and give the website address of the database used, as well as the date you used it.

  1. The abbreviation ‘Stg. Co. Deb.’
  2. Date of Parliamentary session (in brackets)
  3. ‘Co.’, followed by Standing Committee identifying letter
  4. Title of legislation under discussion
  5. The abbreviation ‘col.’
  6. Column number followed by a full stop.
  7. Available from: <web address> (if using an online version)
  8. [Accessed dd month year], followed by a full stop. (if using an online version)
Example:
Stg. Co. Deb. (1980-81) Co. E Finance Bill col. 46.

Parliamentary papers
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Abbreviation of the House ‘HC’ or ‘HL’
  2. Paper number
  3. Date of Parliamentary session (in brackets) followed by a full stop.

References to reports issued by Joint Committees of the House of Lords and the House of Commons should include both serial numbers followed by the Parliamentary session.

Examples:
HC 7 (1990-91).
HL 40, HC 15-viii (1981-82).

Command papers (print and online)
Include the following information in this order:

  1. Title of the command paper in italics
  2. (Command paper number*, year of publication) *Command papers have been in various series abbreviated to Cmnd, CP etc include as is written on the paper you are looking at.
  3. Place of publication followed by a colon:
  4. Publisher.
  5. Available from: <web address> (if using an online version)
  6. [Accessed dd month year], followed by a full stop. (if using an online version)
Example:
Health is everyone’s business: proposals to reduce ill health related job loss (CP 134, 2019) London: HMSO

 

See also Personal communications.

There are many different kinds of unpublished documents which may be public or private including unpublished theses, in-house documentation (sometimes referred to as grey literature), legal documents (wills, sale of land info), minutes of meetings, historical documents, manuscripts, diaries etc.

Try to reference the document following one of the styles in this guide. Additionally, to enable someone else to to find it you should include details of the location where the document is held and may be consulted. If you are referring to a large number of unpublished sources, you may want to consider using running notes. For more information please see: BS 6371:1983 Recommendations for the citation of unpublished documents.

Examples:
George Blake: witness statement, 1989-1990. [typescript] Papers of Michael Randle (b.1933). University of Bradford Special Collections. GB 532 CWL MR/4/14

Jackson, A. (1993) Biological control of chocolate spot and rust on fava beans. [PhD thesis] University of Glasgow.

 

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author/producing organisation/games company
  2. Year of release in producing country (in brackets)
  3. Title in italics
  4. [Platform] followed by a full stop. If it’s on more than one platform, use ‘multi-platform’ or similar
  5. Place of production followed by a colon:
  6. Producing organisation followed by a full stop.
Example:
CD Projekt Red (2015) The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt [multi-platform]. Warsaw: CD Projekt.

 

Finding information to write references for webpages may be difficult. If you are unable to find the information to write a reference (who wrote it, when, where and why) you may want to consider trying to find an alternate source. Because web information can change you need to include the date you accessed it, and if it is a key source to your research it is worth keeping a personal copy or screenshot to refer back.

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author or organisation responsible.
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of the page in italics
  4. [Online]
  5. Place of publication (if you can find it) followed by a colon:
  6. Publisher followed by a full stop.
  7. Available from: <web address>
  8. [Accessed dd month year]
Example:
Locality (2019) Development that reflects community need in the absence of a local plan in Morpeth. [Online] Available from: <https://neighbourhoodplanning.org/case_study/development-reflects-community-needs-absence-local-planmorpeth/> [Accessed 23 June 2019].

Wikis
Include the following information:

  1. Name of the Wiki
  2. Year the page was last updated (in brackets)
  3. Title of the entry or article in italics, followed by the date, and time of entry or update,
  4. [Online]
  5. Available from: <web address>
  6. [Acccessed dd month year].
Example:
Wikibooks (2017) Introduction to Psychology/Abnormal Psychology (last updated 23rd September 2017 at 13:37) [Online]. Available from: <https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Psychology/ Abnormal_Psychology> [Accessed 7th October 2019].

Social media (facebook, twitter, Instagram)
You should only include public messages in your reference list. Restricted tweets can be cited but as personal communication.

Include the following information:

  1. Author of message or tweet (in the case of a tweet start the username with the @ symbol)
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of post or tweet in italics followed by a comma,
  4. Date of post or tweet
  5. [Online]
  6. Available from: <link to tweet or post>
  7. [Accessed dd month year].
Examples:
@BBCBreakingNews (2019) Alan Turing, World War Two codebreaker and mathematician, will be the face of new Bank of England £50 note, 15 July [Online]. Available from: <https://twitter.com/BBCBreaking/status/1150710850497536000> [Accessed 16 July 2019].

Burberry (2019) The traditional utilitarian parka jacket is reimagined for #BurberryPreAW19, 9 July [Online]. Available from: <https://www.instagram.com/p/BzqTYJSADgw/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link> [Accessed 14 July 2019].


Blogs
Include the following information:

  1. Author of the blog
  2. Year (in brackets)
  3. Title of message or post
  4. Title of blog or website in italics, followed by a comma and the date of entry.
  5. [Online].
  6. Available from: <web address of post>
  7. [Accessed dd month year].
Example:
George, R. (2018) Rombalds stride 2018. Rose Runs, 5 February. [Online] Available from: <https://running.rosegeorge.com/rombald-stride-2018/> [Accessed 16 July 2019].

 

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