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Speech & Language Therapy

The Research Process

When you are given an assignment questions make sure you fully understand what is being asked on you. Refer to the guidance in your module handbook or lecture slides for further information, or discuss it with your tutors. 

1. Identify the 'question' word(s)

You could use the 'Analysing the question' section of the Skills for Learning website to help you. 

2. Identify core concepts/keywords

What is the main focus of the question?

3. Identify synonyms or related terms

Example: 

With reference to the literature, compare group treatment opposed to individual treatment of primary school children with articulation disorders

'Compare' is the question word - it's what you have to do

On the next tab you will find tips and tricks to help you develop your search strategy and make your searching more efficient.

Topic 1: Primary school children Topic 2: Articulation Disorders Topic 3: Group treatment Topic 4: Individual treatment
Junior school children Apraxia Group intervention Individual pull-out treatment
Kindergarten Dysarthria Group therapy Individual therapy

 

Once you have identifying your keywords, synonyms and related terms you can start to construct a search strategy. 

4. Use search tools: 

Phrase searching uses speech marks to help you search for phrases e.g. "speech and language pathology" 

Truncation uses the asterisk to help you search for terms with variant endings e.g. therap* = therapy, therapeutic, therapist

5. Combine terms using AND, OR and NOT 

AND - for combining different concepts

OR - for identifying research that use synonyms or related terms. You need to put the similar terms in brackets. 

NOT - use when you want to exclude a term (use with caution as it can eliminate useful results too)

(elderly OR aged) AND ("speech language therapy" OR "speech language pathology" OR "Speech therapy") AND (stroke OR "cerebrovascular accident" OR stroke OR CVA)

Some resources have an 'advanced search' feature which can help you to combine your searches. 

Remember!! Keep a record of your searches

Conducting a literature review involves a LOT of searching and reading. It is therefore important to keep a record of what searching you have done and where. It is recommended that you keep a searching log. Keep a notebook and record;

  • which databases you have searched 
  • what terms you have used as well as any searching techniques such as truncation
  • any limits you have applied e.g. date or geography
  • how many results you retrieved
  • how many of the results were relevant

You may wish to keep a record using a document such as the Search Log here. Check with your tutor whether this would be suitable to include in your Appendix. Think of it as a paper trail of your searching or even as a set of instructions for whoever is marking your work.

Searching Log

The PRISMA flow diagram may also be useful to guide you through the searching process as it can be used to highlight the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions.

6. Identify appropriate resources to search.

   a. Reading lists - are there any core textbooks that your tutors recommend on your topic?

      i. Check your modules in MyBeckett

   b. Use the Library Catalogue to find additional books and e-books

      i. Available on the 'Welcome' page of this guide

   c. Use Discover to search our e-journals and other subscriptions  

      i. Available on the 'Home' page of this guide

   d. Use subject specific resources to help you focus your results 

      i. Available on the 'Specialist Resources' page of this guide

You can search most resources in exactly the same way, the search screen may just look a bit different. 

To help you refine your results and make them more manageable look for limiters such as 'Publication date' or 'Resource type' 

It's important that you think critically about the sources you want to use in your assignments. Evaluate what you find and make a judgment about whether it is appropriate to be used or if any flaws need identifying in your discussions. 

The majority of Health and Social Sciences articles are written following the IMRAD format, Introduction, Method, Research, And Discussion. Here are a series of points to consider for each section of such articles when appraising them:

Introduction: Why has the research been undertaken? What was the purpose of the research? The aims of the research should be clearly outlined in the introduction and should also contain any evidence of a literature review along with any keywords used by the author when searching.

Method: When, where and how was the study conducted? Who or what was the subject of the study? Are any ethical issues outlined? Was a pilot study conducted to identify any potential problems with the methodology? Is the information provided detailed enough for others to replicate the research? Has the researcher chosen a qualitative or a quantitative approach to data collection? If so, what are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach for this specific research? Is there any evidence of triangulation - of data being obtained by more than one method? Was data gathered from a large and diverse enough sample size? And how effective was the response rate or other collection method? Have any potential biases or issues been acknowledged? Have any interventions been made to eliminate any potential biases or issues which might have affected the research's reliability? 

Results: Are the results comprehensibly presented? How do they relate to the original research question? Have the results - and the research's interpretation of them - been assessed by a peer-reviewer, or other form of critical friend beyond the original researcher(s)?

Discussion: What are the practical, academic, professional and broader implications of the research? Is any of it applicable to your research, daily role, or professional practice? Has the researcher included discussion of how their study might be improved, and suggestions for further study? What is your interpretation of this information?

Not all of the above points will apply to every paper, but at least some of them should help you assess the strengths, weaknesses and relevance of information which you are considering.

If you would like to see examples of pre-critiqued papers, visit NHS Behind the Headlines which provides examples of health stories currently in newspapers with links to the original research paper. Other useful critical appraisal tools include:

A nurses’ guide to the hierarchy of research designs and evidence 

Centre for Evidence Based Medicine

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) 

How to read a paper 

PRISMA  

For more information about referencing, including the full Leeds Beckett Harvard guide - please click on the Referencing tab or visit our Referencing & Plagiarism pages. 

Conducting a Systematic Review

As part of your final year project or dissertation, you may have to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SR). If you have searched the Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, you will know that these are lengthy pieces of research, often taking years to complete and involving several researchers, which combine literature and research around a given subject. Due to time restrictions, the SR which you produce will not need to be as lengthy or as in depth, so please do discuss with your supervisor what they expect of your SR.

The key to conducting a good SR is to start with a good research question. Before starting the SR properly, conduct a scoping review of the literature around your chosen subject to ensure there is enough literature available for you to discuss in your work. You can also use this stage of your SR to identify commonly used keywords or alternative search terms for your subject. Start by searching broadly and simply and use this time to identify gaps in the literature or areas where further research is needed which you may wish to focus on as part of your dissertation.

Many health students use PICO to formulate a good research question. Using PICO, your research question should contain 4 main elements e.g.

  • Population (which group of the population do you wish to discuss) e.g. Amongst elderly adults who experience repeated falls......
  • Intervention (what treatment you are considering investigating) e.g..... does the intervention of a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals......
  • Comparison (this may be an alternative intervention if available) e.g. ......as opposed to relying solely upon the services of one team.....(please note, not all research questions have a comparison element).
  • Outcome (what are you trying to achieve or investigate) e.g. ......lead to falls reduction.....

It is important to clearly define each of the main elements of your research question as this will help establish your inclusion and exclusion criteria. Also think about restricting your search to a specific time period or geographical location. Finally, check Cochrane and Prospero to ensure a systematic review has not been conducted previously in your area.

Don't rely solely upon Discover to conduct your SR. It is important to search several sources and databases. By conducting a SR properly using your search terms and several databases, you are showing your supervisor that you have advanced research skills. In addition, in the workplace, you will be expected to keep up to date with current research by using other resources such as PubMed, Nice Evidence, TRIP so this is a good opportunity to familiarize yourself with these which are used in professional practice.

To find a list of other databases, click on the Specialist Resources tab of this subject guide or go to our A-Z list of databases.

Once you have formulated your research question and identified alternative search terms/ synonyms, think about how you can combine your search terms. In many databases, the advanced search function enables you to do this easily. Remember to start searching broadly, then narrow you search using more specific terms. You can join the key concepts of your dissertation using AND to narrow and focus your search. If you do not retrieve enough literature, you can broaden your results by joining terms with OR. You can use NOT to eliminate any irrelevant search terms from your results e.g.

(Elderly OR Age*) AND ("falls management" OR "falls prevention") AND ("multi-disciplinary teams OR interdisciplinary teams OR multidisciplinary teams")

Consider different spellings of words e.g. organization/ organisation, time restrictions, and geographical limitations to make your results more focused. You may also wish to consider narrowing your search to a specific type of research method. Also consider how you can use truncation to search for various different endings of words e.g. child* will search for childhood, childlike, childish, children. You may have to perform several searches to retrieve the results suitable for you, and then transfer your searches into several other databases so make sure you keep a record of the searches you have performed even if none of the results are relevant. Remember, searching is a lengthy trial and error process.

It is essential to write up ALL searches you perform as part of conducting your SR. Best practice is to record the date, database, search terms, limitations, number of results in total, then number of irrelevant results with a general statement as to why others have been discarded. This information can then be used as evidence (even put in the appendix at the back of your dissertation) as evidence that your searching has been thorough. You can record your searches using a simple template (see below), or register with individual databases which allow you to retain your search history.

 

As part of your SR you may find that you retrieve lots of relevant articles and resources. Various different programmes such as Mendeley and EndNote allow you to store, make notes, and organise your references. For more information click here.

Now that you have found relevant research articles, it is a case of reading them carefully to identify key themes and arguments. Initially, decide whether an article will be useful by reading the title and the abstract and decide whether it meets your inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Once you have identified the most relevant papers, you need to assess the quality of the studies. You can use tools such as the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) or the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) to help you with this process. You might also want to look at our information on in the Research Process section of this page for more prompts and questions to ask of any research paper you wish to include. 

 

On this page you will find links to information which will help with critical appraisal. How to Read a Paper by Trish Greenhalgh is also a good starting point should you need further help (available only to Leeds Beckett students with a student login). 

 

Your Academic Librarians are available to help you with these stages of performing a Systematic literature Review. You can find details of how to contact us on this page.

For more general help, please contact the 24 hour telephone and chat support using the Contact Us pages.